00:46 

из последних сил.

[Курта]
..Судьба не принимает оправданий..
вот когда трясет от холода, а температура тела превышает 40.5 по Цельсию - вот это уже совсем несмешно!
я многое могу перетерпеть, но эти конвульсии чуть не свели меня с ума.
и сразу же в голове поднялся вопрос, а что делать, когда все умрут, а я останусь? кто будет ставить мне банки??

п.с. только что закончила писать немалых масштабов эссе. классно непопадать по клавишам, когда вообще-то очень надо и сдавать через 5 часов (в 9 утра)...
собственно текст сочинения прилагаю.

мама, пожалей мой мозг в следующий раз. пусть написание пройдёт хотя бы безболезненно (в буквальном смысле).

Topic 5.
The negative impacts of tourism have been attributed, among other things, to inadequate or non-existent planning frameworks for tourism destination development. Tourism planning based on the philosophies of sustainability has emerged as one of the most comprehensive approaches to minimizing negative tourism impacts. Discuss this proposition in terms of current environmental planning practices. Consider how environmental planning can address the challenges of tourism impact management.


Introduction.

Tourism is an industry with high degree of dispersion, amazing variety and decentralisation; hence, it is extremely difficult for government involvement and “planning”. Conflict typifies many situations where resorts, tourist roads, ski runs, and the like either have created or threaten to bring about, considerable physical damage to fragile ecosystems. The concept of sustainable development comes into place and manages to integrate the environment into the economic system (Beder, 1996). At the time, sustainable development is one of the major challenges facing society. Planners are keen to pursue the objective of sustainable development, and acknowledge that they have a crucial part to play in achieving it. It is important to also consider the contribution, which re-using urban land can make to sustainable development, as well as mixed uses (NSW Department of the Environment, 1999). In addition, Australian wetlands, coastal dunes and forest ecosystems commonly bear the cost of the development. This essay will try to highlight the importance of what so called the “balance line” – acting environmentally responsible in tourism development.


In order to discuss the proposed topic, it is essential to refer to the basic terms, such as sustainability, sustainable development and environmental planning. So far there was a lot of debate about these terms, and no single definition accepted. However, the definitions presented further are commonly referred to by scholars.

In the most general sense, “sustainability” means ensuring that human activities do not compromise the essential natural and social systems on which life depends, now or in the future, according to Gurran (2007). The researcher also determines ecologically sustainable development as “using, conserving and enhancing the community’s resources so that ecological processes, on which life depends, are maintained and the total quality of life, now and in the future, can be increased” (p. 32).

It is clear, that environmental problems of global dimensions have developed, and that human economic activity has usually been the cause of it. Population growth and other threatening factors played the role of the base for sustainable development concept to emerge. The sustainable development process in Australia brought together representatives of the government, industry, union, social welfare organisations and conservation groups to discuss how ecologically sustainable development should be achieved. The major Australian environmental groups tend to avoid the debate over whether economic growth is desirable or necessary for environmental protection (Beder, 1996). They do, however, differentiate between growth and development, and prefer the term ‘ecologically sustainable development’ to ‘sustainable development’ because it emphasises the qualitative aspects of development, as opposed to the traditional emphasis on quantitative growth’ (Beder, 1996). Another very common definition is provided in the paper called “Our common future”. It states, that “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (1990, p.87).

It is time to refer to the planning system, which has a vital part to play in promoting more sustainable land-use patterns and use of resources. Government has a number of legislative and regulative powers, which help to guide the tourism industry development. Hall (2007) finds, that planning for tourism occurs in a number of forms (development, infrastructure, promotion and marketing), involves various structures (different government organisations), and occurs on various levels (international, national, regional, local and sectoral). As in most forms of economic planning, it is desirable to balance the development of supply (attractions, facilities and infrastructure) with the promotion of demand (the number of tourists). Government tourism planning, therefore, serves as an arbiter between competing interests at the destination level. Nevertheless, although planning is recognised as an important element in tourism development, the conduct of a plan or strategy does not guarantee appropriate outcomes for all stakeholders (Simmonds, 1986).

In fact, tourism is an environmentally dependent industry. Natural and cultural environments are the main attraction for tourists, and therefore, public attention to the environment has grown substantially in recent years. The preservation of historic buildings and townscapes and the perceived need to establish wilderness and national park areas are testimony to the development of a conservation ethic in Australian society (Hall, 2007). Tourism “degrades irreversibly the very attractions which justified and attracted it, eroding natural resources, breaking up the unity and scale of traditional landscapes and their characteristic buildings, polluting beaches, damaging forests” (Hall, 2007, p. 173). Communities lack a clear and effective environmental planning strategy for all the different types of industries that occur in their region, and in addition tourism both impacts and is in turn impacted by the environment. Thus, protection of the natural and cultural resources upon which tourism is based is essential for the long-term sustainable development of a location. However, in contrast, there was a discussion about national parks, which some of the stakeholder saw as land “worthless” for anything else.

Although the relationship between tourism and the environment has the potential to be symbolic, control of tourism activities become crucial, if certain aspects of the environment are to be protected from tourists and associated facilities. The relationship between tourism and the environment can vary from conflict, coexistence (relatively little contact between the two) to symbiosis (mutually supportive and beneficial), and the latter is preferable.

Hawkesbury-Nepean area is taken as an example of environmental planning in Sydney region (according to the three papers chosen, which are representing Sydney regional environmental plan No 20). Sydney has developed the pressures on the Hawkesbury-Nepean River and its catchment (the area which supplies water to the river). The Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment supplies most of Sydney’s metropolitan water and supports a diverse range of industries including agriculture, fisheries, sand and gravel extraction and tourism. Simultaneously, it is called upon to accommodate substantial urban development, while retaining its scenic qualities and recreational value. The degradation of the environment has come about largely because there has been no single authority with responsibility for the management of the catchment. Therefore, with time the water quality decreased to the point where it is affecting public health, increasing riverbank degradation and etc. As for now, a number of project plans must be provided to the Trust, such as vegetation management plan, erosion and sediment control plan, environmental impact statement and so on, prior to commencing any development.

The Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment Management Trust was given a role in implementing the Regional Environmental Plan (REP) for the area. Developers by law must consult the Trust in case of proposing any projects that will use composing facilities, waste management facilities or affect marinas, sewerage systems, and also when proposing development in mapped wetlands. The Hawkesbury-Nepean Catchment Management Trust is encouraging the protection and restoration of the river system. It also facilitates the ecologically sustainable use, development and management of natural resources. General aim of the REP is ‘to protect the environment of the Hawkesbury-Nepean River system by ensuring that the impacts of future land use are considered in a regional context’ (p. 25).

As it was pointed out, planning helps to minimise negative impacts of any potential development, adequately balance the resources and meet the expectations of the stakeholders.
Gurran (2007) in his book discusses principles for strategic environmental planning. It is important, he argues, that environmental planning focus on a defined local or regional spatial area and applies long-term vision. Such planning should respect the capacity of the environment, integrate economic, environmental, social, cultural and equity factors and be based on sound “social and environmental research and analysis” (p. 151). It is also essential for it to involve the community and recognise its diversity.

Gurran (2007) explains the concept of the three P’s (People, Planet, Profit), but he actually names them as the three E’s (Environment, Equity, Economy). It reflects ecosystem concepts of holism and interdependence –which means that individual species are dependent on an ecosystem and the processes it supports in their entity. When considering potential negative impacts, it is crucial to remember about externalities, which are those cases, when production or consumption by a firm or consumer directly affects the welfare of another firm or consumer, and those causing damage are not financially accountable for it. Other examples, which should be addressed, are the situation of the wet tropics in Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef; also a number of reports were conducted on Australian coastal zone, urging restraint on private development and greater attention to the preservation of ecological values (concern such destinations as the Gold Coast).

However, it is not only important to reach the most satisfaction among all stakeholders, but also keep planning up to date, as it is an ongoing process and requires constant reconsideration, according to the changes occurred over the time. Besides, there is not much discussion about the compatibility of different styles of tourism development. The relationship between tourism and the off-shore fishing industry was left unconsidered; the sector was seriously disadvantaged in recent years by coastal tourism encroachments along the eastern and southern seaboard of the country.

These kinds of argument starts from the naive assumptions that human interests should always override bio rights, that we fully understand the functioning of the ecosystems we are tampering with and the nature can be readily “fixed up”. The travel industry has been driven (and supported by the Governments) by a “think-big” profit mentality, which has almost totally marginalized environmental concerns. According to Mercer (1995), Director of the Australian Tourist Commission has highlighted that tourism industry played no part in many recent battles to protect areas of outstanding conservation (and tourism) significance, like Kakadu, the Great Barrier Reef and the wilderness of south-west Tasmania, because it view the environmental movement as essentially ‘anti-business’ and ‘anti-progress’.

According to Mason (2003), there is a lack of ability to determine and, therefore, to manage sustainable level of tourism and its development. When we look at the total national picture, tourism continues to demonstrate all the environmental ill-effects, and when ‘planning’ is done, invariably it is merely a reaction to a process that has been set in train by private enterprise. Planning is all about balancing the nature conservations and benefits gained from its exploitation. There are two very useful tools of measuring the environmental impacts named the “Limits of Acceptable change”, which reflect explicit recognition of how much change is acceptable, and the “Ultimate Environmental Threshold” - the stress limit beyond which given region becomes incapable of returning to its original condition and balance.

Seabrooke and Miles (1993) identify the primary purpose of site evaluation as an assessment of the capacity of a site to accommodate one or more recreational uses. This will entail identifying the attributes of the site capable of contributing to its use for recreational purposes and, equally, areas of particular sensitivity, vulnerability or physical restriction which limit effective carrying capacity of the site. For example, the signs of congestion and overcrowding – waiting, noise, litter, erosion, conflict, danger – show that the area is experiencing overwhelming of tourists. It is important for tourism industry, that managers understand and monitor visitor perceptions of quality. Managers must maintain the right balance between maximizing the value of a visit and minimizing the cost (including the cost for the environment) of providing the intended quality of recreational experience.

It is important to identify, in advance, all the stakeholding groups affected by the development, how they will be affected, and how to plan to minimize the adverse consequences of the development to the stakeholders. For instance plans to develop the recreational potential of a fishing river will clearly affect local hotels, restaurants and shops selling sport tackle. Less obviously, farmers, shoppers, and other recreation participants who are mostly members of the local community, will also be affected. There will also be effects on the natural environment of the river. Equally, important benefits may be generated such as local employment – an economic multiplier effect from visitor expenditure. It can be difficult to identify and evaluate the true impact of any development; therefore development may occur in a sensitive environment.

In terms of planning there is also an issue of secret dealings between State government officials and private land developers, which were a feature of coastal resort development and land speculation in Australia, and the most vivid example of this is the Gold Coast. Policies should take account of the nature of the particular leisure or recreational activity and the ability of the land to sustain the activity in the long term. However, management activity is also necessary to supplement the planning process if the environment is to be conserved and leisure users enable to benefit to the maximum from their use of the area. Similarly, natural parks are managed in a way that will maintain their natural or cultural features while still allowing for their use and enjoyment by visitors (Department of planning, 1989). Indeed, the major issues of tourism in natural areas arise from the interaction between conservation, development and planning objectives.

The consideration of the potential tourism market for Australia as “limitless” is incompatible with notions of ecologically sustainable development and that in certain part of the country, unplanned and ill-coordinated tourism developments have already created enormous planning problems that urgently need addressing. The pressure on water supply, transportation and similar infrastructure at the regional level, the generally poor career opportunities that are provided by tourism and the fact that bad relations can often develop between ‘hosts’ and ‘guests’, especially if the wealth discrepancy is marked, are disappointing. Increased international tourism can ‘crowd out’ other activities, e.g. by making certain holiday destinations too expensive for the local population. Philip Island and annual motorcycle grand prix events, which stretched the space, accommodation, water supply and sewerage capabilities of the tiny island to its limits and also coincided with a crucial phase in the lifecycle of the short-tailed shearwater, can serve as an example. This case highlights the inevitable contradictions posed by governmental involvement in tourism planning.


Conclusion

The sustainable levels of use of an area are best decided following baseline studies of environmental conditions and agreement between relevant interests on both the nature of any recreational and leisure impacts and appropriate responses. The role of environmental legislation is hard to underestimate, as the Government has such powerful tools as various land-use regulations (including environmental impact assessment), pollution controls and etc. Certainly, one of the worst barriers to sound ecological planning is unrestrained human population growth, and also one of the greatest obstacles to such planning is the time scale involved (Aberley, 1994). Undoubtedly, planning could help to achieve sustainable use of an area for recreation by introducing measures, such as spatial and temporal zoning of activities. It is also clear, that sustainable development requires sustainable communities and moreover, public participation is crucial for a sustainable development strategy.

As Holden (2008) argues, one of the goals of tourism development is the use of tourism as a means of environmental and cultural conservation in order to preserve an area’s uniqueness, whilst distributing the economic benefits of tourism to the maximum number of people in all segments of society. Slogans such as "thinking globally, acting locally" and "thinking long-term, acting now" should become the base of any development in general.


References:

Aberley, D. 1994, Future by design: The practice of ecological planning, Envirobook publishing, Sydney.

Beder, S. 1996, The Nature of Sustainable Development, Scribe Publications, Newham.

Gurran, N. 2007, Australian Urban Land Use Planning: Introducing Statutory Planning Practice in New South Wales, Sydney University Press, Australia

Hall, C. M. 2007, Introduction to Tourism in Australia: Development, Issues and Change, 5th ed., Pearson Education Australia, Sydney.

Holden, A. 2008, Environment and Tourism, (2nd ed), Routledge, New York
Mason, P. 2003, Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Chapter 7: ‘Tourism planning and management: concepts and issues’, pp65-80.
Mercer, D. 1995, A Question of Balance: Natural Resource Conflict Issues in Australia, 2nd ed, Federation Press, Sydney.

NSW Department of Planning 1989, Tourism Development near Natural Areas, Grafton.

NSW Department of the Environment 1999, Planning for sustainable development: Towards Better practice, Transport and the Regions: London.

Simmonds, D. C. 1986, 'The conflicting aims of planning'. In KG Willis (ed) Contemporary Issues in Town Planning, Gower, Brookfield, pp. 199-211.

Seabrooke, W. and Miles, C. W. N. 1993, Recreational Land Management, 2nd ed, E & FN Spon, London.

Sydney regional environmental plan No 20 – Hawkesbury-Nepean River (No2 - 1997), Code of practice with the Trust – Marinas.

Sydney regional environmental plan No 20 – Hawkesbury-Nepean River (No2 - 1997), Code of practice with the Trust – Sewerage Systems or Works.

Sydney regional environmental plan No 20 – Hawkesbury-Nepean River (No2 - 1997), Code of practice with the Trust – Waste Management Facilities or Works.

World Commission on Environment and Development 1987, Our Common Future (The Brundtland Commission Report), Australian ed, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

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@настроение: болезненно.

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